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Supporting K-12 Muslim Students in the Wake of President Trump’s Ban

By Kate Allman

Visiting Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins School of Education

President Trump’s recent executive order temporarily banning the entry of individuals from seven Muslim-majority countries and stopping refugee admissions for 120 days has been widely critiqued as discriminatory in intent and effect. Described by the president as “extreme vetting” to “keep radical Islamic terrorists out of the United States of America,” it results in a dangerous conflation of terrorism and the Islamic faith practiced in the banned countries and across the world. At this writing, the order has been blocked by the courts.

While the recent order is directed toward temporary residents and refugees, it has the potential to embolden those who hold Islamophobic attitudes and jeopardize the safety of U.S. citizens who are Muslim. Over 3.3 million U.S. citizens identify as Muslim, approximately a fourth of which are school-aged children. In a 2014 report issued by the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), 55 percent of California Muslims reported being the victim of at least one form of religion-based bullying. Twenty-percent of Muslim youth who participated in the CAIR 2014 survey reported discrimination by a teacher, administrator or other staff member. As Muslim students step into schools over the coming weeks, it is important that teachers and school leaders seek out opportunities to support Muslim students who may feel unsafe.

Here are two ways that teachers and school leaders can support Muslim students as arguments over the ban play out in the courts:

1) Create safe spaces: Schools must proactively create school environments where Muslim students are supported in their learning communities. School leaders need to ensure that all school staff are aware of federal and state legislation that protects students of any religion from discrimination and harassment based on actual or perceived ethnicity or citizenship. Keeping these laws in mind, teachers must understand the enormous diversity among the U.S. Muslim student population: U.S. Muslim students have family origins in over 77 countries and identify with every U.S. racial background. Thirty-percent of adult Muslims describe themselves as white, 23 percent as black, 21 percent as Asian, 6 percent as Hispanic and 19 percent as “other” or mixed race, according to the Pew Research Center.

While many Muslim students in the United States are first-generation immigrants, approximately 81 percent of Muslim adults are U.S. citizens and approximately 37 percent of U.S. Muslim families have lived in the United States for two or more generations. Educators and school leaders must understand that Muslim students cannot be easily identified based upon appearance, ethnicity or language, and they must take special care to fight stereotyping based on perceived or actual ethnicity, spoken language or other social markers.

Teachers and educational leaders should also familiarize themselves with the kinds of harassment that Muslim students often experience and the contexts in which this bullying can occur. When bullied, Muslim students are most often the targets of ethnic slurs, either made in person or on social media. Muslim students, particularly girls, frequently report harassment for how they look or dress—for example, comments directed toward girls who wear the hijab—and are sometimes asked to remove their hijab by students or educators. Muslim boys who choose to wear a taqiyah or koofi also experience similar incidents of harassment. In extreme cases, peers or teachers have tried to forcibly remove a student’s hijab or head covering.

Given this information, school leaders should closely monitor student behavior, particularly in bathrooms and gym areas, and be aware that discriminatory language often precipitates physically aggressive behavior. Schools should encourage students to approach a teacher, counselor or administrator about any discriminatory conduct as soon as it occurs. Guidance counselors or a trusted administrator should also be available to discuss the recent events or any concerns.

While some students may want to process events with their teacher or counselor, others may want to organize school-wide events aimed at educating the public or advocating for the rights of Muslims and refugees. Teachers should also support students’ attempts to reach out or organize at the school.

2) Share Muslims’ Stories: Islam is an extremely diverse religion, with followers in every country of the world. It is not practiced in one common way, even within a singular nation—practices vary based upon one’s sect, region of origin, socioeconomic status, linguistic practices and other social factors.

In my research, I discuss the possibilities and limitations for integrating literature written by Muslims as a tool for disrupting Islamophobia in the classroom. While literature by Muslim authors can be taught in ways that reinforce stereotypes and monolithic views of Muslims, when taught in disparate clusters with authors from different backgrounds and perspectives being read together, it has the opportunity to highlight the diversity of religious practices and beliefs among Muslims and challenge Islamophobic assumptions. At a time when the Islamic faith is being simplified to acts of terrorism, reading literature written by Muslims from different regions can highlight the diversity of beliefs and practices among Muslims and serve to challenge Trump’s order conflating Islam and national origin. It can also support Muslim students of various backgrounds within your classroom.

A sample of books that could be clustered in the classroom:

Big Red Lollipop by Rukhsana Khan (K-3rd grade);

The Sky of Afghanistan by Ana Eulate (K-2nd grade);

Muhammad Ali: A Champion is Born by Ana Eulate (K-3rd grade);

The Grande Mosque of Paris by Karen Gray Ruelle (4th-6th grade);

The Clever Sheikh of the Butana and Other Stories: Sudanese Folk Tales edited by Ali Lutfi Abdallah (5th-12th grade);

Does My Head Look Big In This? by Randa Abdel-Fatah (7th-12th grade);

A Map of Home by Randa Jarrar (9th-12th grade);

Salt by Nayyirah Waheed (10th-12th grade);

The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf by Mohja Kahf (10th-12th grade); and

Born Palestinian Born Black and the Gaza Suite by Suheir Hammed (9th-12th grade).

Kate Allman is a member of the national Middle East Outreach Council and has published several articles examining the schooling experiences of Muslim students and interpreting her findings for school leaders. Her most recent book chapter, “I’m Not Ashamed of Who I Am: Counter-stories of Muslim, Arab Immigrant Students in North Carolina,” was published this year by Sense Publishers in the book Immigration and Education in North Carolina: The Challenges and Responses in a New Gateway State. For descriptions of the books and additional resources to support of K-12 Muslim students, you can reach her at


Time to Re-Develop Professional Development

By Steven Ross
Professor and Senior Research Scientist, Center for Research and Reform in Education
Johns Hopkins University

When you talk to educators about job satisfaction, professional development (PD) is rarely high on the list of things they enjoy doing. Understandably, most would rather spend the time teaching their students than being students themselves—away from their classrooms. Educators also recognize that in the rapidly changing landscape of PK-12 education, polishing present skills and learning new ones, such as using technology and aligning lessons with Common Core State Standards (CCSS), is essential to effectiveness. Satisfaction with PD seems to suffer, in part, from experiences with traditional, but uninspiring, delivery modes, such as “make and take” (e.g., develop a new lesson plan or bulletin board in a workshop and bring it back to school) or “the big lecture hall” (e.g., sit and listen to the sage on the stage dispense expert guidance on improving selected skills). Both of these formats and a variety of others can be useful in certain situations and limited doses. The key factors seem to be the relevance, design and quality of the PD experience so that educators truly benefit and view their participation as clearly worth the time.

These considerations call attention to the importance of the report, “Bridging the Gap: Paving the Pathway from Current Practice to Exemplary Professional Learning,” issued in November by the Frontline Research & Learning Institute. Importantly, the institute grounded its study of current national PD practices on evidence-based, measurable and widely accepted definitions of quality. The starting point is the specification by the federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of six criteria that define quality PD (sustained, intensive, collaborative, job-embedded, data-driven and classroom-focused). Drawing on publications from the nation’s leading professional development association, Learning Forward, the institute established operational definitions of each criterion and then explored a research question of clearly high interest and importance: To what degree do current PD practices by school districts meet the federal definition of quality?

Notably, Frontline Education was uniquely positioned to answer that question through its Learning Management System, which houses data from numerous districts on PD activities and enrollments. With permission from 203 school district partners across the country, the institute compared the standards associated with each of the six criteria to five years of data on the PD experiences of over 330,000 educators. I am pleased to note that my center (CRRE) at the Johns Hopkins School of Education made a modest contribution to the study by corroborating research-based definitions, findings and conclusions.

The findings essentially show that old habits die hard. Specifically, for four out of the six criteria, 80 percent or more of the PD offered and received by teachers was not aligned with the new federal definition and priorities for professional development. Disappointing, yes, but hardly surprising so early in the ESSA era. The study, therefore, acquires considerable importance, not to rebuke school districts for maintaining familiar practices, but as a clarion call for systematically using ESSA standards and the institute’s defined criteria for raising professional development to higher levels of quality and utility. With these clear directions and the metrics provided by the institute for tracking performance, it can be done.


What Will a New Trump Administration Mean For K-12 Education?

By Laurence Peters, Ph.D.
Adjunct Professor, Johns Hopkins School of Education


As the reality of the Trump election sinks in, many are now somewhat wearily reflecting on how various parts of Trump’s policies would affect their world. In my world of K-12 education policy, there is a potential for some quite dramatic change so it may be worth spending a few moments contemplating how a Trump presidency may affect our lives as educators if only to distract us from some of the more sordid elements of this bitter election season.

Three themes seem likely to take center stage when it comes to Trump’s views on education. A sector that he chose not to focus on very much during the campaign, preferring instead to rail against unfair trade deals and ill-advised wars. From his campaign literature, however, it is possible to discern at least three goals that will likely drive the agenda.

  1. Downsizing, if not eliminating, the U.S. Department of Education
  2. Promoting school choice and charter schools
  3. Reducing the federal role in all areas, particularly in relation to promoting education equity

Let’s take each one in order. The U.S. Department of Education has been the subject of constant right-wing vitriol since President Jimmy Carter created it in 1979. Reagan vowed to abolish it and was prevented by an education secretary who was curiously interested in keeping his job. He commissioned a panel to write A Nation At Risk that linked our educational performance to the economy and defense in ways that resonated in the halls of Congress and most critically the business community. The report’s unexpectedly warm reception squashed all talk of dismantling the department vital to monitoring progress toward widely agreed-upon goals and objectives. Lightning may well not strike twice, but we should remember that Senator Lamar Alexander is chair of the Senate Health Education and Labor Committee (HELP) and, as a former Secretary of Education, has shown no indication that he wants to reduce his committee’s jurisdiction over the newly minted ESSA, which he did more than most to help craft. There is no large part of the Trump coalition howling for the relatively small bureaucracy to be dismantled and plenty in the business community who would sooner have the fight be about abolishing the hated EPA. Moreover, if Trump does move to abolish the department, he would be wasting a lot of his limited political capital on confronting not just the teacher unions (a core part of the Democratic coalition), but a good segment of state and local government that relies on federal grants and expertise at a time when education budgets have been shrinking. What is more likely to happen is that the department’s budget for staff and for what might be considered non-core programs, such as after-school, adult education and special education, will be cut to pay for the new school-choice and charter schools initiatives that will signal that Trump has brought change to Washington.

Trump’s major agenda is his stated intention that he wants to add an additional federal investment of $20 billion toward school choice. That is a large sum and, since it is a concrete figure, you can probably place more trust that he will in fact deliver. Since the charter school movement emerged some 25 years ago, there has been a strong steady increase in the numbers of charters in the United States, and they now educate 6 percent of the students in this country. But the dramatic growth of publically funded charters, in particular, has not come without controversy as teacher unions and a variety of education groups complain about reverse segregation and lower standards. The ballot referendum to expand the number of charter schools in Massachusetts was defeated. Trump promises to boost charter schools goes along with his belief that both parties have been far too accepting of the status quo in the American big cities. The new billions will be reprioritizing existing federal dollars, which as mentioned above is likely to come out of the hide of the budget for the historically forgotten groups that attracted the federal interest in the first place. Politically this will be a much harder fight to overcome—first, because Democrats remain split on the issue as to whether charter schools may well be the tonic needed to shake up hundreds, if not thousands, of underperforming schools whose monopolies continue to go unchallenged and, second, because there may well be no need for new legislation. There are plenty of authorities in current legislation that would allow the reprogramming of these funds for charter schools, but there is every reason to believe that they would be able to pass even broader legislation in the first 100 days that would link this program to a broader anti-poverty initiative that would (as the campaign literature sets out) invite each state to “contribute another $110 billion of their own education budgets toward school choice, on top of the $20 billion in federal dollars” that someone in the Trump backroom works out to be “$12,000 in school-choice funds to every K-12 student who today lives in poverty.” No one at this point, though, can really say for sure how this initiative will end up looking once the various lobbying communities on both sides of the issue have had their say and then the bills get digested and eventually spat out by the relevant congressional committees.

Finally, as mentioned, we are likely to see a new Trump Administration oversee a massive rollback on the federal role when it comes to preserving educational equity for all kinds of populations, not least African American, Hispanic and special-needs students. Currently there is a fight between the Obama Administration and Republican lawmakers over the intent of the ESSA language related to the need for Title One to supplement, not supplant, state dollars for special populations. The GOP wants to insist that states and locals can use their federal dollars however they want and so, if they decide they do not want to spend the funds they were allocating to poor schools, they no longer have to because the federal dollars can make up the difference. Today it is much clearer that poor schools under a Trump Administration will stand to lose hundreds of millions of dollars in potential funding.

So we end up with a rather dismal picture for the federal role in education as we have known it. It looks now like the recent battles in Congress that led to the long-awaited passage of the landmark Elementary and Secondary School Act, now renamed the Every Child Succeed Act, was a herald for a large retreat from the former federal role as the funds were virtually block-granted to the states with limited amounts of controls and oversight. Gary Orfield, the noted civil rights historian, claimed the new law stripped the federal funding of its “leverage for any national purpose.” Under a new Trump Administration, we can expect more of the same. But as one wise saw said who helped me survive the Reagan administration as a House Democratic staffer on the brunt end of his similar “drain-the-swamp” anti-Washington rhetoric, “there are no permanent defeats or permanent victories.” What we have in this country is a democracy still expressed in the three branches of government, as well as a free press and an active advocacy community.

But to make it all work and to achieve any kind of progress we have to participate. We have to learn from the past and make the best arguments we can based on values and reason, as well as reliable data and research-based evidence. We also need to listen to our opponents and be prepared to engage them in good faith to seek common ground.  That is what “no permanent victories and defeats” is all about. We are all part of the same learning community on the same journey to strive to create a more perfect union.


Maryland Legislature Ends Session with Flurry of Activity

One of the highlights of the recently completed legislative session was the agreement by the governor and General Assembly on an aid package of several-hundred-million dollars to Baltimore City in response to last spring’s unrest. The state funds, designated to shore up some of the city’s poorest neighborhoods, will be used to expand after-school programs, keep libraries open, fix up community parks and demolish vacant houses.

The Maryland legislature also approved new initiatives either as budget items or as legislation to enhance K-12 education. These include scholarships for low-income students, a grant program for summer learning, funding for private school scholarships, and setting up a commission to make recommendations on the adequacy of public school funding.

Governor’s budget:

The governor put $5 million in his budget to offer scholarships for low-income students to attend nonpublic schools under the Broadening Options and Opportunities for Students Today (BOOST) program. The Maryland Department of Education will administer the program and be responsible for establishing procedures for the application and awarding of scholarships. The program is funded on a year-to-year basis. Maryland will be the 24th state in the nation to allow private-school tuition assistance.

Education legislation:

To see the complete review of the legislative season and to check on each bill’s status, visit

  • Pathways in Technology Early College (P-TECH) High Schools—SB (Senate bill) 376 provides funding to establish planning grants for six P-Tech schools. Two of the school will be in Baltimore City. P-Tech schools prepare students for 21st-century jobs through a collaborative partnership between high schools, community colleges and industry. Students graduate with a high school diploma and an associate’s degree from a community college.
  • Baltimore City School Board—City legislators passed a controversial measure HB (House bill) 558 on the last day of the session to create a partially elected school board. Two new members to be elected by city voters in 2020 will be added to the nine-member board. Delegate Cheryl Glenn told the Baltimore Sun said, “We will finally have people on the school board who will be accountable to the citizens of the city.”

As the session was nearing a close, a last-minute amendment was offered to HB 858 that would require a member of the House of Delegates and Senate be involved in any decision to select a new CEO for Baltimore I city schools. While their participation would be advisory, the action was seen as expressing dissatisfaction with school board’s hiring of the current CEO.

  • Next-Generation Scholars Grant—HB 1403 provides college scholarships to low-income students who meet rigorous academic and social criteria during middle school and high school. Middle-school students are eligible to apply and must maintain a 2.5 GPA through high school and be open to summer work or internship opportunities.
  • Public School Opportunities Act—HB 1402 addresses the problem of learning loss that occurs in the summer months when students fall behind due to a lack of educational opportunities. The loss is most frequent among low-income children. The law establishes a grant program for extended day or summer enhancement programs administered by the Maryland State Department of Education. A local school system, community school or nonprofit is eligible to apply.
  • Information on Mandated Assessments—HB 412 requires boards of education to provide information on each local, state or federally mandated assessment in that county that measures a student’s academic success. By October 15 of each year, this information must be updated, posted on the local board’s website and included in the board’s master plan.
  • Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten Assessments—SB 794 scales back kindergarten assessments in the state. The current system of statewide assessments of all four-year-olds is to be limited to a random sample, as determined by MSDE, of kindergarten students in each jurisdiction.
  • Habitual Truancy—HB 429 establishes the Task Force to Combat Habitual Student Truancy. Task force responsibilities include identifying best practices to determine how records are collected and maintained, and the best time to notify pupil personnel workers of a student’s chronic absenteeism. The task force will be staffed by Morgan State University.
  • Teacher Induction, Retention and Advancement—SB 429 established a pilot program for first-year teachers. The program offers mentorship, peer observation and professional development for first-year teachers who are selected to participate in the program. The state pays 80 percent of the costs and the school district the remaining 20 percent. Counties are not required to participate.
  • Commission on Innovation and Excellence in Education—SB 905 established a commission to review findings of a consultant’s study on the adequacy of public school funding in Maryland that was completed in December. The commission is tasked with translating the work done by the consultant into legislative proposals on changes to the state’s school-funding formula to be presented to the General Assembly. A preliminary report is due December 31.