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Science of Learning – Part 2

By Emily Ip

This discussion question is a central theme in the field of nursing and medical education. Defining an expert vs. novice not only in a student’s learning practice but in a licensed medical practitioner is immense. The current learning method is “see one, do one, teach one”, yet, in my opinion, is a very poor way of instruction and challenges the learning/transfer theory that Bransford, Brown, and Cockings (2000) espouses. In the medical environment, the general thought is that the longer a person has been in practice the greater expert they become. This thought is flawed and has many layers.  Student nurses are closest to the textbook and studies grounded in current evidence-based practice. “Expert” practitioners are relying on medical information that they were taught when they were in school, which most likely was one to two decades prior. While they have their experiences that lead to their patient care decisions, they are more often not learned on new practices, new technology, or new research that has been distinguished.  When I am in the clinical setting with nursing students, often they find medical errors or new theories as to why the patient is ill.

Two of Bruning’s (2011) cognitive themes stand out for me regarding my professional practice. Bruning (2011) asserts that mental frameworks organize memory and guided thought. This can be seen in the structure of nursing curriculum and the need for new frameworks due to the fact that current methodologies are not keeping pace with the necessity for a modern nurse. As patient acuities continue to increase, present-day curriculum is not keeping pace. I agree with Bruning (2011) that developed frameworks can organize memory and guide thought, which is why new curriculum needs to be developed to direct reasoning for the 21st-century nurse.  The other Bruning (2011) theme that relates to nursing education would be the notion that extended practice is required to develop cognitive skills. This theme, I eluded to in the above paragraph. The current teaching modality of “see one, do one, teach one” directly contrasts Bruning’s (2011) theme. Learning skills that affect a patient’s care trajectory should be legitimatized by allowing a nursing student abundant time to hone and develop the skill so that it can solidify into deep cognitive concepts.


SOE Student Creating Online Courses in Disability Law

By Pamela Smith

I am a person with a disability, transitioning back to work as a law professor after years of being on disability leave. I am pursuing the M.S. in Technology for Educators from the Johns Hopkins School of Education in order to learn how to design and create high-quality, interactive online courses in disabilities law and/or disabilities studies. I am also pursuing an M.A. in Disabilities Studies from City University of New York.

I took Designing and Delivering E-Learning Environments (DDELE) with Professor Donna Schnupp in the summer of 2016. It was one of my first courses in the program, and it was critical to my achieving my goal. As part of that course, I developed the design for a module in a course I have titled “Exploring Issues of Adult Employment for People with Disabilities.” The module focused on some of the barriers people with disabilities face, e.g., high unemployment and wage disparities. In addition to designing this module, we also had to create basic infrastructure online for the course, which I did using CourseSites. Professor Schnupp provided some excellent insights on that initial infrastructure, which I was able to use when I created the full course. In fact, I was also able to expand and use that skeleton for the full course.

When DDELE ended, Professor Schnupp encouraged me to take Instructional Design for Online Learning (IDOL) to continue to design the full course, and I did in the fall of 2016 with Nicola Wayer, using the first three parts of the five-part ADDIE model (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate).

The DDELE course allowed me to begin the process of creating a full online, 15-week law school course by focusing on a single module. I was able to articulate my vision for this course from that module and I continued the design process for the full course in IDOL.

I actually created the course with Professor Schnupp’s guidance in the fall of 2016 in Advanced Applications of Instructional Technology (AAIT). Professor Schnupp helped me solidify the scope of work in AAIT and reviewed my initial steps as I created the full infrastructure for the online course.

I have to admit that my design helped me when I ran afoul of technology difficulties because I never doubted my vision or design. I just needed to find my way around the technology. Working my way to find useful technology that would work with a Macbook Pro was surprisingly challenging and a lot of things went wrong. It took a lot of time and effort to create a full online course, but I did it and Professor Schnupp provided encouragement and guidance.

My goal for taking the M.S. in Technology for Educators was to learn how to design a quality online course. For this one course, I began designing one module in DDELE. I continued designing a whole course in IDOL. I created that course in AAIT with Professor Schnupp’s guidance. In creating the course, I learned I had a lot left to learn to master technology. I am looking forward to the journey because despite all the technology problems I had, I actually designed and then created my first fully online course in disabilities law. I can only get better.

When I go back to work, my goal is to teach four fully online or hybrid (onsite/online) courses at a law school. I’ve already created one course. I have more to create. I feel confident that I can do so because the coursework in my program has been very helpful for my personal development and confidence. Further, the instructors, like Professor Schnupp, model good design and good teaching. I feel comfortable following not only what I was taught, but also how I was taught, as I create my own courses. As I create more courses, I will continue to do so to follow these best practices.



Math Lesson Reflection

By Colleen Heberlein

As Brahier (2013) states, “one of the things that good teachers of mathematics do is reflect on the effectiveness of their lessons” (p. 163). Without the important piece of reflection, a good lesson will never be great and an ineffective lesson could be carried on to the next year with little or no changes. In my lesson, I set out to teach my Bridge Math students the important life skill of fluently calculating elapsed time as part of our unit on addition and subtraction. I used common, real-world scenarios from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Illuminations website almost exclusively to teach and practice the skill with students because I wanted them to apply this skill in their everyday lives. This skill is aligned to Common Core State Standard 3.MD.1 (Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2016) and NCTM Content Standard 4 (Brahier, p.77).

To measure my success in reaching that goal, students completed an exit ticket to close the lesson. Ten out of my fourteen students, or 71%, completely mastered the exit ticket. Three students showed some understanding but with misconceptions about calculating elapsed time over the hour, and one student showed very little understanding of the concept. This data tells me that my students were very close to reaching the lesson’s goal, so a whole-group reteach is not necessary. I will continue to incorporate elapsed time problems into Do Now’s in the remaining lessons for the unit.

After the lesson, I was discussing how I wish I extended the lesson past digital clocks to analog clocks with my coach, because in my interactions with students I have noticed that they struggle to read the analog clocks on the classroom walls. My coach informed me that we have clock manipulatives in the teacher workroom that I could have used. Though I wish I had asked before the lesson, I will now use these manipulatives to extend the learning from this lesson throughout the unit. Another teaching practice that I need to work on is lesson imaging, “the sense that a teacher carries into the classroom of what to expect from students, how they are likely to react, and what the teacher can do to make the lesson work” (Brahier, p. 163). I did not fully picture the lesson in my head, so during the transition from guided to independent practice, time was wasted because my instructions were not clear. I also did not fully prepare for the misconception that many students had that they could simply add the hours and minutes in the same way that we add multi-digit integers, so I did not prepare an adequate explanation for that idea. In future lessons, including when I teach this lesson next year, I will have a better mental image of how the lesson will proceed which will make the lesson and my teaching stronger.

Planning this lesson also taught me that I do not use outside planning resources enough. I tend to think that I must make lessons completely on my own, even though many teachers have taught my same subject before me. This class offered great planning resources that I will continue to reference and implement in my classroom. Brahier (2013) writes that, “although some of these best lessons can be found in resource books or on the Internet, teachers begin to ‘own’ a lesson only after planning, teaching, reflecting on, and reteaching it” (p. 164). I can make a lesson my own even if the lesson was not originally made by me by utilizing lesson imaging and reflecting on the lesson in order to continuously improve my teaching for my students.


Brahier, D. (2013). Teaching secondary and middle school mathematics (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2016). Mathematics Standards. Retrieved from

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2016). Elapsed Time: Using a Timeline to Determine Elapsed Time. Retrieved from






Supporting K-12 Muslim Students in the Wake of President Trump’s Ban

By Kate Allman

Visiting Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins School of Education

President Trump’s recent executive order temporarily banning the entry of individuals from seven Muslim-majority countries and stopping refugee admissions for 120 days has been widely critiqued as discriminatory in intent and effect. Described by the president as “extreme vetting” to “keep radical Islamic terrorists out of the United States of America,” it results in a dangerous conflation of terrorism and the Islamic faith practiced in the banned countries and across the world. At this writing, the order has been blocked by the courts.

While the recent order is directed toward temporary residents and refugees, it has the potential to embolden those who hold Islamophobic attitudes and jeopardize the safety of U.S. citizens who are Muslim. Over 3.3 million U.S. citizens identify as Muslim, approximately a fourth of which are school-aged children. In a 2014 report issued by the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), 55 percent of California Muslims reported being the victim of at least one form of religion-based bullying. Twenty-percent of Muslim youth who participated in the CAIR 2014 survey reported discrimination by a teacher, administrator or other staff member. As Muslim students step into schools over the coming weeks, it is important that teachers and school leaders seek out opportunities to support Muslim students who may feel unsafe.

Here are two ways that teachers and school leaders can support Muslim students as arguments over the ban play out in the courts:

1) Create safe spaces: Schools must proactively create school environments where Muslim students are supported in their learning communities. School leaders need to ensure that all school staff are aware of federal and state legislation that protects students of any religion from discrimination and harassment based on actual or perceived ethnicity or citizenship. Keeping these laws in mind, teachers must understand the enormous diversity among the U.S. Muslim student population: U.S. Muslim students have family origins in over 77 countries and identify with every U.S. racial background. Thirty-percent of adult Muslims describe themselves as white, 23 percent as black, 21 percent as Asian, 6 percent as Hispanic and 19 percent as “other” or mixed race, according to the Pew Research Center.

While many Muslim students in the United States are first-generation immigrants, approximately 81 percent of Muslim adults are U.S. citizens and approximately 37 percent of U.S. Muslim families have lived in the United States for two or more generations. Educators and school leaders must understand that Muslim students cannot be easily identified based upon appearance, ethnicity or language, and they must take special care to fight stereotyping based on perceived or actual ethnicity, spoken language or other social markers.

Teachers and educational leaders should also familiarize themselves with the kinds of harassment that Muslim students often experience and the contexts in which this bullying can occur. When bullied, Muslim students are most often the targets of ethnic slurs, either made in person or on social media. Muslim students, particularly girls, frequently report harassment for how they look or dress—for example, comments directed toward girls who wear the hijab—and are sometimes asked to remove their hijab by students or educators. Muslim boys who choose to wear a taqiyah or koofi also experience similar incidents of harassment. In extreme cases, peers or teachers have tried to forcibly remove a student’s hijab or head covering.

Given this information, school leaders should closely monitor student behavior, particularly in bathrooms and gym areas, and be aware that discriminatory language often precipitates physically aggressive behavior. Schools should encourage students to approach a teacher, counselor or administrator about any discriminatory conduct as soon as it occurs. Guidance counselors or a trusted administrator should also be available to discuss the recent events or any concerns.

While some students may want to process events with their teacher or counselor, others may want to organize school-wide events aimed at educating the public or advocating for the rights of Muslims and refugees. Teachers should also support students’ attempts to reach out or organize at the school.

2) Share Muslims’ Stories: Islam is an extremely diverse religion, with followers in every country of the world. It is not practiced in one common way, even within a singular nation—practices vary based upon one’s sect, region of origin, socioeconomic status, linguistic practices and other social factors.

In my research, I discuss the possibilities and limitations for integrating literature written by Muslims as a tool for disrupting Islamophobia in the classroom. While literature by Muslim authors can be taught in ways that reinforce stereotypes and monolithic views of Muslims, when taught in disparate clusters with authors from different backgrounds and perspectives being read together, it has the opportunity to highlight the diversity of religious practices and beliefs among Muslims and challenge Islamophobic assumptions. At a time when the Islamic faith is being simplified to acts of terrorism, reading literature written by Muslims from different regions can highlight the diversity of beliefs and practices among Muslims and serve to challenge Trump’s order conflating Islam and national origin. It can also support Muslim students of various backgrounds within your classroom.

A sample of books that could be clustered in the classroom:

Big Red Lollipop by Rukhsana Khan (K-3rd grade);

The Sky of Afghanistan by Ana Eulate (K-2nd grade);

Muhammad Ali: A Champion is Born by Ana Eulate (K-3rd grade);

The Grande Mosque of Paris by Karen Gray Ruelle (4th-6th grade);

The Clever Sheikh of the Butana and Other Stories: Sudanese Folk Tales edited by Ali Lutfi Abdallah (5th-12th grade);

Does My Head Look Big In This? by Randa Abdel-Fatah (7th-12th grade);

A Map of Home by Randa Jarrar (9th-12th grade);

Salt by Nayyirah Waheed (10th-12th grade);

The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf by Mohja Kahf (10th-12th grade); and

Born Palestinian Born Black and the Gaza Suite by Suheir Hammed (9th-12th grade).

Kate Allman is a member of the national Middle East Outreach Council and has published several articles examining the schooling experiences of Muslim students and interpreting her findings for school leaders. Her most recent book chapter, “I’m Not Ashamed of Who I Am: Counter-stories of Muslim, Arab Immigrant Students in North Carolina,” was published this year by Sense Publishers in the book Immigration and Education in North Carolina: The Challenges and Responses in a New Gateway State. For descriptions of the books and additional resources to support of K-12 Muslim students, you can reach her at